Neurological Terms Pdf

Serves as a means to relieve pressure from the brain and spinal cord. Exhibiting Online Recordings. Glossary of Neurological Terms. Caused by a lesion limited to one side of spinal cord.

May also have hydrocephalus, cord symptoms. It can also lead to bleeding into an area such as the cerebrospinal fluid, known as subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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The bony spine and the ligaments, muscles and other soft tissues that surround it all help protect the spinal cord. Without a certain critical level of blood flow, cells start to malfunction. Return to the Nervous System Diseases home page. Downward snapping of the distal phalanx of the second or fourth toe. In the nervous system a joining of nerves or blood vessels.

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Stimulation of the lateral aspect of the foot with a blunt point from the heel forward to the small toe. Type I consists of caudal displacement of the medulla and inferior pole of the cerebellar hemispheres through the foramen magnum.

This interruption in blood flow can lead to injury and death of the brain tissue which is supplied by that artery. It may bulge beyond the vertebral body and compress the nearby nerve root, causing pain. There are many causes which can lead to epilepsy in an individual, including brain tumors, cerebrovascular malformations, trauma, and congenital malformations of the nervous system, to name a few. Pacinian corpuscle largest of the skin receptors located deep in the dermis and responsible for sensation of vibration and deep pressure. Fresnel prisms clear, flexible polyvinyl chloride plastic sheets composed of a series of small prisms that are used to assess and correct diplopia.

Glossary of Neurological TermsGlossary of Neurological Terms

Generally, as the pressure increases the brain does not function as well, leading to neurological symptoms. Usually starts in an upper extremity and may progress to affect another extremity. There are many causes of seizures and they can cause various sensory disturbances, loss or alteration of consciousness, convulsions and other symptoms depending on the type and location in the brain. Brodmann's areas distinct regions of the cerebral cortex recognized by variations in cell size, density, and thickness of the cortical layers. Marcus-Gunn pupil see afferent pupillary defect.

Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. The nerves going from the central nervous system include nerves that control some function of the body, such as increasing or decreasing heart rate or telling a muscle to contract. As the tissue becomes ischemic, it does not function normally and can lead to neurological symptoms.

If the ischemia is severe enough or prolonged enough it can lead to permanent damage to the brain tissue which is termed infarction see above. It may improve the symptoms of rigidity, bradykinesia and drug-induced side effects. This is performed frequently in neurosurgical operations to achieve access to the brain and other structures within the head. All of the functions of this fluid are not well known but it is clearly important for the support and protection of the brain and spinal cord.

It can also have profound effects on many other neurological functions, including normal breathing. The cord carries information up to the brain and down from the brain to the periphery. Coiling is performed by either an interventional neuroradiologist or a neurosurgeon trained in endovascular techniques. Where are several sub-types of Chiari malformation which vary somewhat in their causes and symptoms.

We hope this collection of neurological medical terms helps clarify the lingo and medical terms that are often used in dealing with neurological disorders. Damage to the cerebellum can lead to imbalance, clumsiness and problems with gait, pdf.ico among other neurological symptoms. We work tirelessly to post new material including new neurological medical terms often so that we can meet the needs of all of our readers. Return to the top of the Neurological Medical Terms page.

For each optic nerve most of the visual fibers cross to the opposite side, while some run directly backward on each side without crossing. On the surface of the brain, particularly on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum, there is gray matter which is called the cortex. It can be helpful to have somewhere to go to get more information about what they mean and what they imply in the discussion of a patient.

These cells are involved in the nutrition and maintenance of the nerve cells. Infarction of the heart muscle is known as a myocardial infarction heart attack while infarction of the brain is generally known as a cerebral infarction stroke or ischemic stroke. It can be used to drain cerebrospinal fluid to decrease the pressure within the head, such as in the case of hydrocephalus or traumatic brain injury. The left thalamus controls movement on the right side of the body, and the right thalamus controls movement on the left side.

For example, in severe traumatic brain injury a large craniectomy may be performed to allow the brain room to expand while it swells. No clear underlying structural abnormality. Bleeding into a confined space can lead to a collection of blood called a hematoma see above.

Charcot joint progressive destruction and deformity of bone and soft tissue at weight bearing joints due to severe sensory or autonomic neuropathy cheiro relating to the hand. For example, a decompressive craniectomy is the removal of a piece of skull to allow the brain to expand after an injury. Failure of understanding of the written, printed or spoken word not related to intelligence but to specific lesions in the brain.

Glossary and Definitions of Neurosurgical Terminology

Many link to other pages on this site where you can learn more about them. It extends from the sacral plexus, emerges from the pelvis and travels deep within the buttocks. No radiation is involved, but rather pulsed magnetic waves are used to delineate the structures within the brain. It also contains the motor neurons nerve cells which send out fibers to all muscles to control their movement.

Loftstrand Crutch type of crutch with an attached holder for the forearm that provides extra support. Aneurysms can occur in many arteries throughout the body but ones that occur in the head in the blood vessels that supply the brain are called cerebral aneurysms.

This procedure may improve the tremors. At some point they become permanently damaged, leading to death of the cells, which is infarction. The neurologist focuses on the medical treatment of these diseases since they are not trained in surgery. Therefore it is not a specific term that implies any one particular disease or pathology. Merkel cells disk-shaped receptor endings in the skin believed to be involved with the sensation of fine touch.

Glossary and Definitions of Neurosurgical Terminology

May also be used to facilitate drainage. It can also be hooked up to a monitor to record the intracranial pressure. What we offer is general reference information about various disorders, medical terms and treatments for your education. Due to dural leak after spine surgery, not a congenital disorder. In general this includes all the nerves going to and coming from the central nervous system, including the autonomic nerves and ganglia which control autonomic functions in the body.

Glossary of Neurosurgical Terminology

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