Environmental Policies In Nigeria Pdf
Water hyacinth is an invasive species that was introduced into Africa as an ornamental plant, and which thrives in polluted environments. The courts typically do not award exemplary damages in the claims brought before them. The tragedy of the commons is the problem that, because no one person owns the commons, each individual has an incentive to utilize common resources as much as possible. Examples of tragedies of the commons are overfishing and overgrazing. The use of biological remediation has also been implemented in areas of the delta to detoxify and restore ecosystems damaged by oil spills.
Environmental Policies in Nigeria Challenges and Prospects
While the popularity of selling stolen oil increases, the number of deaths are increasing. The permits are typically not transferable as they are project specific. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Because of the careless nature of oil operations in the Delta, the environment is growing increasingly uninhabitable.
Older flares are rarely relocated away from villages and are known to coat the land and communities with soot and to damage adjacent vegetation. With ideal conditions they offer habitat structure, and input of energy via photosynthesis to the organisms they interact with.
These systems are highly valued by the indigenous people living in the affected areas. Public authorities are statutorily required to inform the public of environment-related issues.
Such interested third parties may file claims in the Court challenging any arrangements they perceive to be inadequate to restore the contaminated land. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations have also utilized technology to identify the source and movement of petroleum spills. Ghana is endowed with abundant natural resources, which have played a key role in the development efforts of the country.
Water hyacinth has the capability to completely clog the waterways in which it grows, making it nearly impossible to navigate fishing boats. Under the Harmful Waste Act, where any damage e. If properly stored, the gas could be used for community projects. Irrational decisions are reached based on unconscious biases, illogical assumptions, and the desire to avoid ambiguity and uncertainty.
Any person who fails to comply with the provisions of the Drilling Regulations may be prosecuted in court. Fishing on the Niger River. Government, Public Sector. The principle of limited liability protects a shareholder from being held liable for the acts of the company. Further effective streamlining of the functions of the various agencies in various tiers of governance is a necessary panacea to this challenge.
Clearly, the this is an indirect indication of environmental policies inadequacies or out-right failure within the oil and gas industry of Nigeria. When critical stakeholders are largely uninformed, romeo and juliet in english pdf it makes implementation of environmental policies much more difficult. Environment and economics in Nigeria. Nigerian law contains provisions to protect whistle-blowers who report or testify in environmental violation matters. Personalised recommendations.
The approach to contamination of soil or groundwater is that the polluter pays the costs of clean up and may also be liable to fines or imprisonment. Such an industry or facility shall apply to the agency for a discharge permit.
Different types of environmental insurances are available for different sectors of the economy. There are different implications from an environmental liability perspective of a share sale on the one hand and an asset purchase on the other. Nigerian law places liability on the directors and officers of a company for environmental damage created by the company. This article examines the role of past and recent government environmental control policies and programs in Nigeria.
This species has high rates of absorbency and can be laid down on top of the water to absorb oil. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page.
By enforcing laws and holding oil companies accountable for their actions the risk of contamination can be greatly reduced. If the regulator is able to trace the waste back to the producer, it would be liable for the clean up. When oil reaches the root zone crops and other plants begin to experience stress and can die, and this is a routine observation in Ogoniland.
The cost of such action is paid by society-at-large, when they must clean the water before drinking it and is external to the costs of the factory. Bendel State forestry law. Real Estate and Construction.
Environmental Policies in Nigeria
Without governmental involvement, the commons is overused. University Press, Ibadan, pp. This is very common in lending transactions where lenders seek to avoid liability for existing conditions on a project site which is being financed by them. Under the Harmful Waste Act, each of the persons responsible shall be deemed to have committed a crime.
The decision-making theory casts doubt on this premise. Human impact from poor land management upstream coupled with the constant pollution of petroleum has caused five to ten percent of these mangrove forests to disappear. Mangroves also provide essential habitat for rare and endangered species like the manatee and pygmy hippopotamus. Overfishing is not the only impact on marine communities.
To hasten the cleanup of spills, regional cleanup sites along the problem areas could help contain spills more quickly. There are no emissions trading schemes currently operational in Nigeria. Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Lagos.
Challenges of Environmental Policies in Nigeria - Research Cyber
Oil contamination affects the fish population and affects the farmers that rely on fishing to support their family. Environmental social science. Article index Lists Portal. With the loss of energy some populations will not be able to survive, or their numbers may drop beyond a point of no return, creating a threatened environment. As the people have settled along the shores of the rivers and coasts, marine and terrestrial habitats are being lost and ecosystems are being drastically changed.
The politics of preserving natural areas in Third World States. Such actions are fairly common in the oil and gas industry where communities claim damages and clean up for pollution of their lands, waters and general environment. In the process of extraction sometimes the pipeline is damaged or destroyed. Climate change, habitat loss, and pollution are all added pressures to these important ecosystems.
Oil spills are a common event in Nigeria. Because many of the fields lack the infrastructure to produce the associated natural gas, it is flared. Any entity or individual affected by a decision of an environmental regulator has a right of appeal under the relevant laws and regulations. Spills in populated areas often spread out over a wide area, destroying crops and aquacultures through contamination of the groundwater and soils.
Sometimes, more specific names are used to reflect the focus of the academic program. In agricultural communities, often a year's supply of food can be destroyed instantaneously.
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